6 Types of Reasoning

  1. Deductive: certain; conclusion does not go beyond the premises.
  2. Inductive: probable; conclusion extrapolates from premises.
  3. Abductive: optional; inference draws on best explanation from available choices.
  4. Reductive: reduced; shows absurdity of all other conclusions (“reductio ad absurdum”).
  5. Defeasible: practical; infers from convention and lack of complete background knowledge.
  6. Fallacious: wrongheaded; relies on informal and formal fallacies even if conclusion turns out true.
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