Logic: 1. Arguments

In common language an argument is a debate. In logic an argument is an attempt to justify a proposition (whether something exists, happened, or is true).

They are composed of premises (P1, P2, P3, etc.) that inference a conclusion (C). An example of arguments more formally look something like this:

P1: All men are mortal.
P2: Socrates is a man.
C: Therefore, Socrates is mortal.

Arguments, in routine conversation are usually put in the form of propositional (declarative) sentences. Of course there are also questions (interrogatory), commands (imperative), wishes (invocative), and interjections (exclamatory). Because of this, we must sort through conversations to see what’s what. There are indicator words for each however.

Keywords for premises include: because, since, given that, due to, inferred by, reason for, et. al.

Keywords for conclusions include: therefore, implies, it follows, in conclusion, thus, hence, entails, consequently, so, et. al.

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